20 Apr Wto Full Form in Agriculture
The World Trade Organization (WTO) was founded in 1995 and forms the basis of a rules-based multilateral trading system. The WTO is a Member-oriented organization with 164 Members (July 2019). Its main activities are: The Committee on Agriculture monitors the implementation of the Agreement on Agriculture and monitors how WTO Members fulfil their obligations. Members are required to exchange information and may ask each other questions or raise concerns about each other`s agricultural policies. The importance of agriculture in world trade has led to a specific agreement on agriculture, which regulates in particular domestic support, export subsidies and market access. Members continue to negotiate further reforms. In 2015, they passed a landmark resolution to abolish agricultural export subsidies and establish rules for other forms of agricultural export promotion. The 1958 Haberler Report stressed the importance of minimising the impact of agricultural subsidies on competitiveness and recommended replacing price support with additional non-production-related direct payments, anticipating the debate on Green Box subsidies. But it is only recently that this change has become the heart of the reform of the global agricultural system.  The intention of this dictionary was to create a broad list of terms commonly used in trade negotiations and in particular in the context of the Free Trade Area of America (FTAA) in order to provide an information tool to the general public. The dictionary is presented in the four official languages of the FTAA: English, Spanish, Portuguese and French.
The compilation does not attempt to represent the entire universe of terms used, nor does it attempt to anticipate or influence in any way the definitions or approaches currently proposed by a country in trade negotiations. In fact, many of the definitions in the draft FTAA agreement available to the public, which are still the subject of difficult debate, have been excluded from this dictionary. Definitions are based on widely used sources, including other trade agreements. An alphabetical list of terms is included to facilitate the use of the dictionary. The terms and their definitions are presented according to the general negotiating topics found in the free trade agreement and other trade negotiations. An electronic version of this document is available on the following websites: IDB, OAS and ECLAC. On 18 July 2017, India and China jointly submitted a proposal to the World Trade Organization (WTO) calling for the abolition of the most trade-distorting form of agricultural subsidies, known in WTO jargon as the Global Support Measure (AMS), or “amber box”, as a precondition for considering further reforms in domestic support negotiations.  Nevertheless, WTO members continue to negotiate agricultural trade reform. This is done at special meetings of the Committee on Agriculture with the aim of making proposals for the WTO`s biennial Ministerial Conference. WTO information on agriculture, including notifications from WTO Members Video: Use of AGIMS The Agreement on Agriculture (`the Agreement`) entered into force on 1 January 1995. The preamble to the agreement recognizes that the agreed long-term objective of the reform process launched by the Uruguay Round reform programme is to create a fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system.
The reform agenda includes specific commitments to reduce support and protection in the areas of domestic support, export subsidies and market access, as well as to establish stronger and more operationally effective GATT rules and disciplines. The Agreement also takes into account non-trade concerns, including food security and the need to protect the environment, and provides for special and differential treatment for developing countries, including the improvement of opportunities and conditions of access for agricultural products of particular export interest to those countries. WTO members took important decisions on agriculture at the 2015 WTO Ministerial Conference in Nairobi, Kenya. These include the obligation to remove agricultural export subsidies, as well as decisions on public livestock for food security, a special protection mechanism for developing countries and trade rules for cotton. The 2003 CAP reform, which decoupled most of the existing direct aid, and the subsequent sectoral reforms resulted in the transfer of most of the aid from the Yellow and Blue Categories to the Green Box (EUR 61.6 billion in 2016/2017, see table below). Aid under the “yellow box” (AMS or aggregate measure of support) increased from EUR 81 billion at the beginning of the contractual period to EUR 6.9 billion in the period 2016-2017, even with successive waves of enlargement. The European Union is thus largely respecting the commitments made in Marrakesh (€72.38 billion per year) for the AMS. In addition, the “blue box” reached €4.6 billion during the same registration period. Although agriculture has always been covered by the GATT, before the WTO there were significant differences in the rules that applied to agricultural commodities compared to industrial products. The GATT 1947 allowed countries to use export subsidies for basic agricultural products, while export subsidies for manufactured goods were prohibited. The only condition was that agricultural export subsidies should not be used to cover more than a fair share of the product concerned in world exports (Article XVI(3) of the GATT). GATT rules also allowed countries to apply import restrictions (e.B under certain conditions.
Import quotas), in particular where such restrictions were necessary to enforce measures to effectively limit domestic production (Article XI(2)(c) of the GATT). This derogation was also subject to the condition that a minimum share of imports in domestic production be maintained. While the volume of world agricultural exports has increased significantly in recent decades, its growth rate has been lower than that of manufactured goods, resulting in a steady decline in agriculture`s share of world trade in goods. In 1998, agricultural trade accounted for 10.5% of total trade in goods and, taking into account trade in services, the share of agriculture in world exports fell to 8.5%. However, in terms of global trade, agriculture is still ahead of sectors such as mining products, automotive products, chemicals, textiles and clothing, or iron and steel. Among agricultural products in international trade, food accounts for almost 80 per cent of the total. The other main category of agricultural products is raw materials. Since the mid-1980s, trade in processed and other high-quality agricultural products has grown much faster than trade in staple foods such as cereals. Article 20 of the Convention on Agriculture stipulates that negotiations on the continuation of the reform process in the field of agriculture must begin one year before the end of the implementation period.